While metal forging is generally a reliable and robust manufacturing process, there are instances where failures can occur. Some major failures of metal forging include:
1. Cracking: Cracking is a common failure mode in metal forging. It can occur due to various factors, such as improper heating and cooling processes, inadequate material flow during forging, or excessive deformation. Cracks can compromise the structural integrity of the forged component and may lead to catastrophic failure.
2. Incomplete Fill: Incomplete fill refers to a condition where the metal does not completely fill the die cavity during the forging process. This can result in a part with insufficient material in certain areas, leading to weakened sections or dimensional inaccuracies. Incomplete fill is often caused by improper die design, inadequate material flow, or insufficient forging pressure.
3. Cold Shut: Cold shut occurs when the metal does not fully unite during forging, resulting in a visible seam or line along the forged part. It can weaken the component, reduce its mechanical properties, and impair its functionality. Cold shuts can be caused by improper material flow, inadequate die design, or inadequate heating.
4. Decarburization: Decarburization is the loss of carbon from the surface of a forged component during the heating process. It can occur when the metal is exposed to excessive heat or oxygen, leading to a reduction in hardness, strength, and wear resistance of the forged part.
5. Internal Defects: Internal defects in forged components can include voids, porosity, and inclusions. These defects can arise due to inadequate material flow, improper die design, or the presence of impurities in the metal. Internal defects can compromise the structural integrity and mechanical properties of the forged part.
6. Dimensional Inaccuracies: Dimensional inaccuracies can occur in metal forging, leading to deviations from the desired specifications. Variations in die wear, temperature control, or insufficient die maintenance can contribute to dimensional inaccuracies, resulting in parts that do not meet the required tolerances.
It's important to note that these failures can be mitigated through proper process control, material selection, die design, and quality inspection measures. Manufacturers employ stringent quality control procedures and testing techniques to ensure the integrity and reliability of forged components.